Xushan Gao, Yvonne V. Louwers, Joop S. E. Laven, Sam Schoenmakers

Clinical Relevance of Vaginal and Endometrial Microbiome Investigation in Women with Repeated Implantation Failure and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Recent studies have investigated if and how the vaginal and endometrial microbiome might affect endometrial receptivity and reproductive health. Although there is no consensus on the existence of a core uterine microbiome yet, evidence shows that the dominance of Lactobacillus spp. in the female reproductive tract is generally associated with eubiosis and improved chances of successful implantation and an ongoing pregnancy. Conversely, vaginal and endometrial dysbiosis can cause local inflammation and an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compromising the integrity and receptivity of the endometrial mucosa and potentially hampering successful embryonic implantation. This review provides a critical appraisal of the influence of the vaginal and endometrial microbiome as parts of the female reproductive tract on fertility outcomes, focusing on repeated implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). It seems that RIF as well as RPL are both associated with an increase in microbiome diversity and a loss of Lactobacillus dominance in the lower female reproductive system.

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