DOI: 10.3390/polym15132762 ISSN: 2073-4360

Chitosan, Gelatin, and Collagen Hydrogels for Bone Regeneration

Karen Guillén-Carvajal, Benjamín Valdez-Salas, Ernesto Beltrán-Partida, Jorge Salomón-Carlos, Nelson Cheng
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • General Chemistry

Hydrogels are versatile biomaterials characterized by three-dimensional, cross-linked, highly hydrated polymeric networks. These polymers exhibit a great variety of biochemical and biophysical properties, which allow for the diffusion of diverse molecules, such as drugs, active ingredients, growth factors, and nanoparticles. Meanwhile, these polymers can control chemical and molecular interactions at the cellular level. The polymeric network can be molded into different structures, imitating the structural characteristics of surrounding tissues and bone defects. Interestingly, the application of hydrogels in bone tissue engineering (BTE) has been gathering significant attention due to the beneficial bone improvement results that have been achieved. Moreover, essential clinical and osteoblastic fate-controlling advances have been achieved with the use of synthetic polymers in the production of hydrogels. However, current trends look towards fabricating hydrogels from biological precursors, such as biopolymers, due to the high biocompatibility, degradability, and mechanical control that can be regulated. Therefore, this review analyzes the concept of hydrogels and the characteristics of chitosan, collagen, and gelatin as excellent candidates for fabricating BTE scaffolds. The changes and opportunities brought on by these biopolymers in bone regeneration are discussed, considering the integration, synergy, and biocompatibility features.

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