DOI: 10.1075/tblt.16.12ell ISSN: 1877-346X

Chapter 12. Conclusion

Rod Ellis

This chapter begins by raising a number of general issues concerning the investigation of individual differences in task-based language teaching (TBLT) – the importance of investigating IDs in task-based language lessons as well as in individual tasks, including the study of input-based as well as output-based tasks, the selection of IDs to be investigated, and the need to make a clear distinction between IDs and engagement/emotion. The chapter then outlines a framework that can guide the study of IDs in TBLT where IDs along with teacher factors and situational context mediate task outcomes via how participants engage with a task. Finally, the chapter comments on pedagogical issues by considering what IDs should teachers consider in designing, implementing, or adapting tasks, how they can find out how their learners differ, and how they can accommodate learner IDs in TBLT.