DOI: 10.3390/metabo14010013 ISSN: 2218-1989

Changes in Intake and Major Food Sources of Carotenoids among U.S. Adults between 2009–2018

Kijoon Kim, Matthew P. Madore, Ock K. Chun
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Large epidemiologic studies suggest that diets rich in total or specific carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. However, there are few studies characterizing trends in dietary carotenoid sources and intake among subgroups of the US adult population in the previous decade. This study aimed to assess these trends using data from 22,339 adults who participated in NHANES 2009–2018 cycles. Carotenoid intake and major food sources were calculated by linking food consumption data from the 24 h diet recall to an FNDDS 2009–2018 and the USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 28). Among US adults, mean (SE) dietary carotenoid intake was 9687.1 (158.0) mcg/day, and total intake was highest in men, non-smokers, moderate alcohol consumers, supplement users, and those with normal BMI, a PIR ≥ 1.85, and whose physical activity level was considered vigorous (p < 0.05). Carotenoid intake has gradually decreased over the past decade (p-trend: 0.097), especially among White adults (p-trend < 0.05), males (p-trend: 0.062), and those with a PIR of 1.0–1.3 (p-trend: 0.051), as have estimated rates of vitamin A adequacy. Tomatoes, carrots, and spinach were major food sources of carotenoids, and consumption of carrots and tomatoes decreased, while the consumption of lettuce, spinach, and salsa increased from 2009 to 2018. Our results warrant further studies investigating the consequences of the decreased tendencies of carotenoid intake on chronic disease risk, especially focusing on population subgroups exhibiting low or decreasing trends of carotenoid intake status.

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