DOI: 10.1002/alz.082695 ISSN: 1552-5260

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders in Mild Cognitive Impairment among Older African‐American Adults

Mohammad Turaani, Sophie Hanna, Hannah Adams, Loraine M. DiCerbo, Nancy Martens, Katherine Kero, Bruno Giordani, Voyko Kavcic
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Neurology (clinical)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Health Policy
  • Epidemiology



Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is one of the early predictors of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia. Assessing comorbidities associated with an MCI diagnosis is crucial not only for diagnostic accuracy but also for understanding the role of comorbidities for evident cognitive impairment. In this study we investigated the association between MCI (amnestic and/or non‐amnestic) and primary comorbidities of hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidaemia (HLD), and Diabetes Mellitus (DM).


We recruited 116 community‐dwelling older African American adults with subjective complaints (103 females, 13 males, mean age = 73.93, range = 65‐91) through the Wayne State Institute of Gerontology and Michigan Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center. Participants were consensus diagnosed as 57 healthy controls (HC), 32 amnestic MCI (aMCI), and 27 nonamnestic MCI (naMCI) based on NAAC Unified Data Set3 protocol. NIH Toolbox‐Cognition battery (NIHTB‐C) also was administered, but not used for consensus.


Across all the participants, UDS3 forms noted 69% with hypertension (HTN), 56% hyperlipidaemia (HLD), and 28% Type II Diabetes. Among the normal group: 65% had HTN, 51% had HLD, and 28% had DM. Among those diagnosed with aMCI: 66% had HTN, 53% had HLD, and 34% had DM. Among naMCI: 81% had HTN, 63% had HLD, and 22% had DM. Comorbidities did not differ significantly across diagnostic groups. Regarding NIHTB‐C, significant ANOVA interactions did show that aMCI and naMCI with DM were lower in Fluid Intelligence than scores for controls with DM (p = .017). Also, as compared to controls with HTN, naMCI with HTN were lower on Fluid Intelligence (p = .024).


Our findings did not demonstrate differences in cardiovascular‐ or diabetes‐related comorbidities across MCI groups and controls in this group of community‐dwelling African Americans. However, DM and HTN, but not HLD, did affect the relationship among the diagnostic groups for fluid intelligence, a summary measure of higher cognitive functioning. This suggests that comorbid medical factors can affect cognitive performance, particularly for MCI groups. Further research is needed to fully understand the scope of risk factors influencing cognitive decline in African Americans. Further analyses will assess relationships between cognitive diagnoses, race, health conditions, and demographic risk factors.

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