DOI: 10.3390/ma17010230 ISSN: 1996-1944

Bronze Age Raw Material Hoard from Greater Poland: Archaeometallurgical Study Based on Material Research, Thermodynamic Analysis, and Experiments

Aldona Garbacz-Klempka, Marcin Piękoś, Janusz Kozana, Małgorzata Perek-Nowak, Marta Wardas-Lasoń, Patrycja Silska, Mateusz Stróżyk
  • General Materials Science

Hoard finds from the Bronze Age have appeared all over Europe, prompting questions about their functions (either as raw materials for recycling or votive objects). The hoard trove of raw materials from Przybysław in Greater Poland is an interesting example of a discovery that is related to the foundry activities of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age communities (c. 600 BC). The deposit consists of fragments of raw materials that were damaged end products intended for smelting. The research included the characterisation of the material in terms of the variety of the raw materials that were used. The individual elements of the hoard were characterised in terms of their chemical compositions, microstructures, and properties. A range of modern instrumental research methods were used: metallographic macroscopic and microscopic observations by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical-composition analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), X-ray microanalysis (EDS), and detailed crystallisation analysis by electron microscopy with an emphasis on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). As part of this study, model alloys were also prepared for two of the selected chemical compositions, (i.e., CuPbSn and CuPb). These alloys were analysed for their mechanical and technological properties. This research of the hoard from Przybysław (Jarocin district, Greater Poland) has contributed to the recognition and interpretation of the function and nature of the hoard by using modern research and modelling methods as a cultic raw material deposit.

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