Jie Li, Xuefeng Shang, Sen Zhang, Qiaoli Yang, Zunqiang Yan, Pengfei Wang, Xiaoli Gao, Shuangbao Gun, Xiaoyu Huang

Breed-Related Differential microRNA Expression and Analysis of Colostrum and Mature Milk Exosomes in Bamei and Landrace Pigs

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Breast milk, an indispensable source of immunological and nutrient components, is essential for the growth and development of newborn mammals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in various tissues and body fluids and are selectively packaged inside exosomes, a type of membrane vesicle. Milk exosomes have potential regulatory effects on the growth, development, and immunity of newborn piglets. To explore the differences in milk exosomes related to the breed and milk type, we isolated exosomes from colostrum and mature milk from domestic Bamei pigs and foreign Landrace pigs by using density gradient centrifugation and then characterized them by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Furthermore, the profiles and functions of miRNAs in the two types of pig milk exosomes were investigated using miRNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis. We identified a total of 1081 known and 2311 novel miRNAs in pig milk exosomes from Bamei and Landrace pigs. These differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) are closely associated with processes such as cell signaling, cell physiology, and immune system development. Functional enrichment analysis showed that DE-miRNA target genes were significantly enriched in endocytosis, the T cell receptor signaling pathway, and the Th17 cell differentiation signaling pathway. The exosomal miRNAs in both the colostrum and mature milk of the two pig species showed significant differences. Based on related signaling pathways, we found that the colostrum of local pig breeds contained more immune-system-development-related miRNAs. This study provides new insights into the possible function of milk exosomal miRNAs in the development of the piglet immune system.

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