Max W Adelman, Ashton A Connor, Enshuo Hsu, Ashish Saharia, Constance M Mobley, David W Victor, Mark J Hobeika, Jiejian Lin, Kevin A Grimes, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Pedroza, Elizabeth W Brombosz, R Mark Ghobrial, Cesar A Arias

Bloodstream infections after solid organ transplantation: clinical epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance (2016–21)

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology

Abstract Background Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs) with MDR organisms (MDROs). Objectives To describe the epidemiology of BSI in the year after several types of SOT, as well as the prevalence of MDRO infections in this population. Methods We conducted a single-centre, retrospective study of kidney, liver, heart, and multi-organ transplantation patients. We examined BSIs ≤1 year from SOT and classified MDRO phenotypes for Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida spp. We compared BSI characteristics between SOT types and determined risk factors for 90 day mortality. Results We included 2293 patients [1251 (54.6%) kidney, 663 (28.9%) liver, 219 (9.6%) heart and 160 (7.0%) multi-organ transplant]. Overall, 8.5% of patients developed a BSI. BSIs were most common after multi-organ (23.1%) and liver (11.3%) transplantation (P < 0.001). Among 196 patients with BSI, 323 unique isolates were recovered, 147 (45.5%) of which were MDROs. MDROs were most common after liver transplant (53.4%). The most frequent MDROs were VRE (69.8% of enterococci) and ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (29.2% and 27.2% of Enterobacterales, respectively). Mortality after BSI was 9.7%; VRE was independently associated with mortality (adjusted OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.7–21.3). Conclusions BSI incidence after SOT was 8.5%, with a high proportion of MDROs (45.5%), especially after liver transplantation. These data, in conjunction with local antimicrobial resistance patterns and prescribing practices, may help guide empirical antimicrobial selection and stewardship practices after SOT.

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