DOI: 10.3390/molecules28176387 ISSN:

Biosorption of Pb(II) Using Natural and Treated Ardisia compressa K. Leaves: Simulation Framework Extended through the Application of Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

Alma Y. Vázquez-Sánchez, Eder C. Lima, Mohamed Abatal, Rasikh Tariq, Arlette A. Santiago, Ismeli Alfonso, Claudia Aguilar, América R. Vazquez-Olmos
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

This study explored the effects of solution pH, biosorbent dose, contact time, and temperature on the Pb(II) biosorption process of natural and chemically treated leaves of A. compressa K. (Raw-AC and AC-OH, respectively). The results show that the surface characteristics of Raw-AC changed following alkali treatment. FT-IR analysis showed the presence of various functional groups on the surface of the biosorbent, which were binding sites for the Pb(II) biosorption. The nonlinear pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to be the best fitted to the experimental kinetic data. Adsorption equilibrium data at pH = 2–6, biosorbents dose from 5 to 20 mg/L, and temperature from 300.15 to 333.15 K were adjusted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The results show that the adsorption capacity was enhanced with the increase in the solution pH and diminished with the increase in the temperature and biosorbent dose. It was also found that AC-OH is more effective than Raw-AC in removing Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. This was also confirmed using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, where it was demonstrated that the improvement was around 57.7%. The nonlinear Langmuir isotherm model was the best fitted, and the maximum adsorption capacities of Raw-AC and AC-OH were 96 mg/g and 170 mg/g, respectively. The removal efficiency of Pb(II) was maintained approximately after three adsorption and desorption cycles using 0.5 M HCl as an eluent. This research delved into the impact of solution pH, biosorbent characteristics, and operational parameters on Pb(II) biosorption, offering valuable insights for engineering education by illustrating the practical application of fundamental chemical and kinetic principles to enhance the design and optimization of sustainable water treatment systems.

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