Panxin Li, Rui Yin, Juanli Cheng, Jinshui Lin

Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Biomaterials and Approaches to Its Treatment and Prevention

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Bacterial biofilms can cause widespread infection. In addition to causing urinary tract infections and pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, biofilms can help microorganisms adhere to the surfaces of various medical devices, causing biofilm-associated infections on the surfaces of biomaterials such as venous ducts, joint prostheses, mechanical heart valves, and catheters. Biofilms provide a protective barrier for bacteria and provide resistance to antimicrobial agents, which increases the morbidity and mortality of patients. This review summarizes biofilm formation processes and resistance mechanisms, as well as the main features of clinically persistent infections caused by biofilms. Considering the various infections caused by clinical medical devices, we introduce two main methods to prevent and treat biomaterial-related biofilm infection: antibacterial coatings and the surface modification of biomaterials. Antibacterial coatings depend on the covalent immobilization of antimicrobial agents on the coating surface and drug release to prevent and combat infection, while the surface modification of biomaterials affects the adhesion behavior of cells on the surfaces of implants and the subsequent biofilm formation process by altering the physical and chemical properties of the implant material surface. The advantages of each strategy in terms of their antibacterial effect, biocompatibility, limitations, and application prospects are analyzed, providing ideas and research directions for the development of novel biofilm infection strategies related to therapeutic materials.

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