DOI: 10.3390/nu16010057 ISSN: 2072-6643

Associations between In-Hospital Mortality and Prescribed Parenteral Energy and Amino Acid Doses in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Medical Claims Database

Hideto Yasuda, Yuri Horikoshi, Satoru Kamoshita, Akiyoshi Kuroda, Takashi Moriya
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Some critically ill patients completely rely on parenteral nutrition (PN), which often cannot provide sufficient energy/amino acids. We investigated the relationship between PN doses of energy/amino acids and clinical outcomes in a retrospective cohort study using a medical claims database (≥10.5 years, from Japan, and involving 20,773 adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients on mechanical ventilation and exclusively receiving PN). Study patients: >70 years old, 63.0%; male, 63.3%; and BMI < 22.5, 56.3%. Initiation of PN: third day of ICU admission. PN duration: 12 days. In-hospital mortality: 42.5%. Patients were divided into nine subgroups based on combinations of the mean daily doses received during ICU days 4–7: (1) energy (very low <10 kcal/kg/day; low ≥10, <20; and moderate ≥20); (2) amino acids (very low <0.3 g/kg/day; low ≥0.3, <0.6; and moderate ≥0.6). For each subgroup, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of in-hospital mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by regression analysis. The highest odds of mortality among the nine subgroups was in the moderate calorie/very low amino acid (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.76–2.87) and moderate calorie/low amino acid (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.36–2.08) subgroups, meaning a significant increase in the odds of mortality by between 68% and 125% when an amino acid dose of <0.6 g/kg/day was prescribed during ICU days 4–7, even when ≥20 kcal/kg/day of calories was prescribed. In conclusion, PN-dependent critically ill patients may have better outcomes including in-hospital mortality when ≥0.6 g/kg/day of amino acids is prescribed.

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