DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2023.2497-2503 ISSN: 2231-0916

Assessment of the gradient diffusion method for fosfomycin susceptibility testing in Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the urine of companion dogs in Thailand

Nattha Jariyapamornkoon, Pongthai Boonkam, Nipattra Suanpairintr
  • General Veterinary

Background and Aim: The agar dilution method is the approved method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in fosfomycin susceptibility testing, whereas the broth dilution method is not recommended. This study aimed to investigate the potential of the gradient diffusion method as a more convenient alternative to agar dilution method for MIC evaluation, particularly for the susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. to fosfomycin. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine samples of dogs diagnosed with bacterial cystitis. Bacterial identification and susceptibility to multiple antibiotics were tested using the Vitek 2 automated system. The susceptibility to fosfomycin was compared between agar dilution (reference method) and the gradient diffusion method. We assessed the agreement rates and errors between the two approaches by analyzing the MIC data. Results: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (98.7%) and Enterococcus faecalis (80.0%) exhibited high fosfomycin susceptibility rates, whereas Enterococcus faecium exhibited a lower susceptibility rate (38.5%). The gradient diffusion method demonstrated unacceptably low essential agreement (EA) rates (>90%) but acceptable categorical agreement (CA) rates (≥ 90%) for S. pseudintermedius (83.54% EA and 97.47% CA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) such as Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus simulans (85.00% EA and 95.00% CA). Enterococcus spp. had an acceptable EA of 93.75%, but an unacceptably low CA rate of 82.81%, with a minor error rate of 17.19%. No significant errors were observed for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. Conclusion: The gradient diffusion method reliably determines MICs and interpretative breakpoints (S, I, R) for S. pseudintermedius. However, its applicability to CoNS and enterococci may be limited due to unacceptable errors. Keywords: dogs, Enterococcus spp., fosfomycin, gradient diffusion method, Staphylococcus spp.

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