Ci Yue Chia, Emmeline Lee

Assessment of contrast intravasation in patients investigated by fluoroscopic hysterosalpingograms: A two‐year retrospective audit in Western Australia

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Oncology

AbstractIntroductionIntravasation on hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is defined by the flow of injected contrast from the uterine cavity into adjacent myometrial vessels. Evidence suggests intravasation can result in consequences such as pulmonary and cerebral embolisms. However, adverse events are poorly reported across published studies. Reported intravasation ranges from 0.0% to 13%, with higher rates attributed to oil‐soluble contrast medium (OSCM) use. Recent reviews of OSCM's fertility‐enhancing benefits have prompted rapid clinical uptake by fertility specialists worldwide. This instigates increased concern for intravasation and its associated sequelae. We aim to assess the prevalence of intravasation in fluoroscopic HSGs and its reporting in Western Australia (WA).MethodsA two‐year retrospective analysis of all fluoroscopic HSGs in one public teaching hospital within WA was conducted. All HSGs were retrieved from the public radiology information system and a blinded method was utilised to verify the presence and grading of intravasation in captured HSG images. Grading of intravasation was attributed by anatomical spread: 1 to myometrium, 2 to parametrium and 3 to para‐iliac vessels. Results were subsequently compared with reported intravasation to assess for discrepancies.ResultsOf 308 successful HSGs, an intravasation rate of 7.1% was identified. Of these cases, 45% were reported and 32% were graded. Majority (73%) of intravasation events were classified as grade 1, with 9.0% and 18% of cases classified as grade 2 and 3, respectively.ConclusionUnder‐reporting of intravasation emphasises a need for increased vigilance of radiologists. Standardised classification can provide interpretational consistency and should be considered to improve safety in future practice.

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