Farah Nadzirah Jamrus, Anuar Ishak, Iskandar Waini, Umair Khan, Md Irfanul Haque Siddiqui, J. K. Madhukesh

Aspects of Non-unique Solutions for Hiemenz Flow Filled with Ternary Hybrid Nanofluid over a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet

  • Applied Mathematics
  • General Physics and Astronomy

This study is carried out to scrutinize the Hiemenz flow for ternary hybrid nanofluid flow across a stretching/shrinking sheet. This study aims to inspect the impacts of variations in the stretching/shrinking parameter and the volume fraction of nanoparticles on key aspects of the ternary hybrid nanofluid flow, specifically the skin friction, Nusselt number (which relates to heat transfer), velocity profiles, and the temperature profiles. The flow equations transform into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using a similarity transformation. Subsequently, the system is numerically solved using the MATLAB software’s 4th-order accuracy boundary value problem solver, known as “bvp4c”. Numeric findings reveal that skin friction values exhibit variations based on the magnitude of the stretching/shrinking parameter. Moreover, in the specific context of the flow problem being studied, the heat conduction efficiency of the hybrid (ternary) nanofluid surpasses that of the hybrid nanofluid. The system yields two distinct solutions within a specific shrinking/stretching parameter interval. Through an examination of the temporal stability of the solutions, it was determined that only one remained stable over an extended period. Remember that these current findings hold solely for the combination of copper, alumina, and titania.

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