DOI: 10.3390/cancers16010208 ISSN: 2072-6694

Artificial Intelligence and Panendoscopy—Automatic Detection of Clinically Relevant Lesions in Multibrand Device-Assisted Enteroscopy

Francisco Mendes, Miguel Mascarenhas, Tiago Ribeiro, João Afonso, Pedro Cardoso, Miguel Martins, Hélder Cardoso, Patrícia Andrade, João P. S. Ferreira, Miguel Mascarenhas Saraiva, Guilherme Macedo
  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) is capable of evaluating the entire gastrointestinal tract, identifying multiple lesions. Nevertheless, DAE’s diagnostic yield is suboptimal. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are multi-layer architecture artificial intelligence models suitable for image analysis, but there is a lack of studies about their application in DAE. Our group aimed to develop a multidevice CNN for panendoscopic detection of clinically relevant lesions during DAE. In total, 338 exams performed in two specialized centers were retrospectively evaluated, with 152 single-balloon enteroscopies (Fujifilm®, Porto, Portugal), 172 double-balloon enteroscopies (Olympus®, Porto, Portugal) and 14 motorized spiral enteroscopies (Olympus®, Porto, Portugal); then, 40,655 images were divided in a training dataset (90% of the images, n = 36,599) and testing dataset (10% of the images, n = 4066) used to evaluate the model. The CNN’s output was compared to an expert consensus classification. The model was evaluated by its sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), accuracy and area under the precision recall curve (AUC-PR). The CNN had an 88.9% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 95.8% PPV, 97.1% NPV, 96.8% accuracy and an AUC-PR of 0.97. Our group developed the first multidevice CNN for panendoscopic detection of clinically relevant lesions during DAE. The development of accurate deep learning models is of utmost importance for increasing the diagnostic yield of DAE-based panendoscopy.

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