Chia-Ter Chao, Min-Tser Liao, Chung-Kuan Wu

Aortic arch calcification increases major adverse cardiac event risk, modifiable by echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, in end-stage kidney disease patients

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Background: The factors affecting cardiovascular risk associated with vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease are less well addressed. Distinct risk factors may contribute synergistically to this elevated cardiovascular risk in this population. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) affects the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) associated with vascular calcification in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, ESKD patients underwent chest radiography and echocardiography to assess aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and LVH, respectively, and were classified into three groups accordingly: non-to-mild AoAC without LVH, non-to-mild AoAC with LVH, and moderate-to-severe AoAC. The risks of MACE, cardiovascular mortality, and overall mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Of the 283 enrolled ESKD patients, 44 (15.5%) had non-to-mild AoAC without LVH, 117 (41.3%) had non-to-mild AoAC with LVH, and 122 (43.1%) had moderate-to-severe AoAC. After 34.1 months, 107 (37.8%) participants developed MACE, including 6 (13.6%), 40 (34.2%), and 61 (50%) from each respective group. Those with moderate-to-severe AoAC (Hazard ratio, 3.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.58–8.73) had a significantly higher risk of MACE than did those with non-to-mild AoAC without LVH or with non-to-mild AoAC and LVH (Hazard ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–6.46). A similar trend was observed for cardiovascular and overall mortality. Conclusion: Echocardiographic LVH could modify the risk of adverse cardiovascular events associated with vascular calcification in ESKD patients. Interventions aiming to ameliorate both morbidities might be translated into a lower MACE risk in this population.

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