DOI: 10.3390/v16010016 ISSN: 1999-4915

Antiviral Mechanisms of Saucerneol from Saururus chinensis against Enterovirus A71, Coxsackievirus A16, and Coxsackievirus B3: Role of Mitochondrial ROS and the STING/TKB-1/IRF3 Pathway

Jae-Hyoung Song, Seo-Hyeon Mun, Heejung Yang, Yong Soo Kwon, Seong-Ryeol Kim, Min-young Song, Youngwook Ham, Hwa-Jung Choi, Won-Jin Baek, Sungchan Cho, Hyun-Jeong Ko
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Enterovirus A71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) are pathogenic members of the Picornaviridae family that cause a range of diseases, including severe central nervous system complications, myocarditis, and pancreatitis. Despite the considerable public health impact of these viruses, no approved antiviral treatments are currently available. In the present study, we confirmed the potential of saucerneol, a compound derived from Saururus chinensis, as an antiviral agent against EV71, CVA16, and CVB3. In the in vivo model, saucerneol effectively suppressed CVB3 replication in the pancreas and alleviated virus-induced pancreatitis. The antiviral activity of saucerneol is associated with increased mitochondrial ROS (mROS) production. In vitro inhibition of mROS generation diminishes the antiviral efficacy of saucerneol. Moreover, saucerneol treatment enhanced the phosphorylation of STING, TBK-1, and IRF3 in EV71- and CVA16-infected cells, indicating that its antiviral effects were mediated through the STING/TBK-1/IRF3 antiviral pathway, which was activated by increased mROS production. Saucerneol is a promising natural antiviral agent against EV71, CVA16, and CVB3 and has potential against virus-induced pancreatitis and myocarditis. Further studies are required to assess its safety and efficacy, which is essential for the development of effective antiviral strategies against these viruses.

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