DOI: 10.3390/ma17010156 ISSN: 1996-1944

Antimicrobial Cu-Doped TiO2 Coatings on the β Ti-30Nb-5Mo Alloy by Micro-Arc Oxidation

Giovana Collombaro Cardoso, Katia Barbaro, Pedro Akira Bazaglia Kuroda, Angela De Bonis, Roberto Teghil, Ivan I. Krasnyuk, Luca Imperatori, Carlos Roberto Grandini, Julietta V. Rau
  • General Materials Science

Among the different surface modification techniques, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is explored for its ability to enhance the surface properties of Ti alloys by creating a controlled and durable oxide layer. The incorporation of Cu ions during the MAO process introduces additional functionalities to the surface, offering improved corrosion resistance and antimicrobial activity. In this study, the β-metastable Ti-30Nb-5Mo alloy was oxidated through the MAO method to create a Cu-doped TiO2 coating. The quantity of Cu ions in the electrolyte was changed (1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 mMol) to develop coatings with different Cu concentrations. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, contact angle, and Vickers microhardness techniques were applied to characterize the deposited coatings. Cu incorporation increased the antimicrobial activity of the coatings, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria strains, and Candida albicans fungus by approximately 44%, 37%, 19%, and 41%, respectively. Meanwhile, the presence of Cu did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The hardness of all the deposited coatings was between 4 and 5 GPa. All the coatings were non-cytotoxic for adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSC), promoting approximately 90% of cell growth and not affecting the AMSC differentiation into the osteogenic lineage.

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