DOI: 10.1002/alz.075959 ISSN: 1552-5260

Analysis of multi‐dimensional cognitive function of different sexes in the middle‐aged and elderly people at high altitude

Aiqin Zhu, Wenzeng Liu
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Neurology (clinical)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Health Policy
  • Epidemiology



To explore the overall and multi‐dimensional cognitive function of middle‐aged and elderly people and gender difference analysis of its influencing factors under hypoxia environment.


From January 2018 to December 2021, using cross‐sectional study design, all participants from Xining, Qinghai Province (with an average altitude of 2,500m) who have lived for more than 20 years were selected.General data questionnaire survey, laboratory collection, overall and multi‐dimensional cognitive function assessment were conducted.


A total of 500 middle‐aged and elderly people were included in this study, 299 males and 201 females, with an average age of 64.17 ± 10.58 years. Compared with women, there were more men working in civil service, earning more than 5000 months, smoking and drinking, accompanied by hypertension and diabetes (P<0.01, P<0.001), but Geriatric Depression Scale(GDS)and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores were significantly lower (P<0.01).Compared with women’s multiple cognitive domains, scores of Mini mental state examination(MMSE), Complex Figure Test Delay Recall(CFT‐DR), Digit Span Forward(DSF) and Digit Span Backward(DSB) in men were higher (P<0.05, P<0.01), while scores of Trail Making Test (TMT‐A and TMT‐B) were significantly lower (P<0.01, P<0.001).The neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and homocysteine (HCY) in peripheral blood were higher than those in women (P<0.05, P<0.01). Covariance analysis showed after adjusting for education level that scores of MMSE and situational memory (CFT‐DR) of men in different age groups were higher than those of women, while scores of attention (TMT‐A) and executive ability (TMT‐B) were lower than those of women (P<0.05, P<0.01). After adjusting for age, scores of MMSE and CFT‐DR of men in primary school, middle school and high school were higher than those of women (P<0.05, P<0.01). With the influence of education level, men’s TMT‐A scores showed a trend of lower (P<0.05, P<0.01), while women’s TMT‐A scores changed little.TMT‐B score of men was lower than that of women in the four education stages (P<0.05), but there was no trend for men and women to optimize with the increase of education level.


Middle‐aged and elderly people of different sexes living in high altitude hypoxic environment may have different multidimensional cognitive decline.

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