DOI: 10.3390/met13122005 ISSN: 2075-4701

Analysis of Face-Centered Cubic Phase in Additively Manufactured Commercially Pure Ti

Claire L. Adams, David P. Field
  • General Materials Science
  • Metals and Alloys

Metal additive manufacturing is a developing technique with numerous advantages and challenges to overcome. As with all manufacturing techniques, the specific raw materials and processing parameters used have a profound influence on microstructures and the resulting behavior of materials. It is important to understand the relationship between processing and microstructures of Ti to advance knowledge of Ti-alloys in the additive field. In this study, a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase was found in grade 2 commercially pure titanium specimens, additively manufactured with directed energy deposition in an argon atmosphere. Two scanning speeds (500 and 1000 mm/min) and three scanning patterns (cross-hatched and unidirectional patterns) were investigated. Electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for microstructural and compositional analysis. Inverse pole figure, phase, and kernel average misorientation (KAM) maps were analyzed in this work. Larger amounts of the FCC phase were found in the unidirectional scanning patterns for the slower scanning speed, while the cross-hatched pattern for both scanning speeds showed a lower amount of FCC. Higher KAM averages were present in the faster scanning speed specimens. According to EDS scans, small amounts of nitrogen were uniformly distributed throughout the specimens, leading to the possibility of interstitial content as a contributing factor for development of the observed FCC phase. However, there is no clear relationship between nitrogen and the FCC phase. The formation of this FCC phase could be connected to high densities of crystalline defects from processing, plastic deformation, or the distribution of interstitials in the AM structure. An unexpected Kurdjumow–Sachs-type orientation relationship between the parent beta phase and FCC phase was found, as 110BCC∥111FCC, 111BCC∥110FCC.

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