DOI: 10.3390/en17010013 ISSN: 1996-1073

An Open-Source Energy Arbitrage Model Involving Price Bands for Risk Hedging with Imperfect Price Signals

Timothy Weber, Bin Lu
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Optimization
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Building and Construction

The increased uptake of variable renewable energy sources has increased electricity price volatility in many energy pool markets, providing an opportunity for storage systems to profit through energy arbitrage. Comparison between the cost or value of storage systems engaging in energy arbitrage should be performed on a levelised basis due to differences in system lifetime. Existing energy arbitrage models with bid/offer curves and imperfect forecasting are typically computationally expensive and are impractical for calculating lifetime levelised cost metrics. In this work, an open-source modular energy arbitrage model with bid and offer curve inputs was developed for a lithium-ion battery energy storage system (BESS) and pumped hydro system (PHS) to analyse lifetime levelised cost and revenue. The mixed integer linear program scheduling module included a new piece-wise linearised description of PHS charging behaviour for rapid optimisation. A one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis indicated that levelised cost and revenue were highly sensitive to discharging efficiency. In a case study based on Australia’s National Electricity Market, imperfect forecasting with no risk hedging was found to increase levelised costs by up to 24% and decrease levelised revenue by up to 50% relative to perfect price forecasting, despite 95% of prices being forecast to be within $35/MWh of the actual trading price. BESS levelised costs were more significantly correlated with consistent low risk bids (Kendall Tau-b of 0.75), since the undiscounted capital costs contribute to a larger proportion of the overall costs than in the PHS systems.

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