DOI: 10.2166/wst.2023.280 ISSN:

An integrated approach to remove endocrine-disrupting chemicals bisphenol and its analogues from the aqueous environment: a review

Monica A. V., Anbalagan K., Becky Miriyam I.
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Engineering


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) used as a plastic enhancer in producing polycarbonate resins to manufacture hard plastics. Due to strict limitations on the manufacturing and utilization of the BPA, several bisphenol substitutes, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), have been developed to replace it in various applications. Because of their widespread use in food containers, infant bottles, and reusable water bottles, bisphenols (BPs) have been identified in different environmental circumstances, including drinking water, seawater, industrial effluent, and endocrine systems such as human blood, urine, and breast milk. However, locating and analyzing them in different conditions has proven to be challenging. Therefore, there is a need to reduce the prevalence of BPs in the environment. The significance of advanced treatment options for treating and eliminating BPA and its alternatives from water bodies are reviewed. Also, the research gaps and future scopes are discussed in this review article. According to a literature survey, adsorption and photocatalytic degradation provide synergistic benefits for environmental challenges because of their substantial adsorption capacity, high oxidation capability, and low cost compared to alternative individual treatment options.

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