DOI: 10.3390/w15244204 ISSN: 2073-4441

An Integrated Approach for Saturation Modeling Using Hydraulic Flow Units: Examples from the Upper Messinian Reservoir

Nader H. El-Gendy, Walid M. Mabrouk, Mohamed A. Waziry, Thomas J. Dodd, Fathy A. Abdalla, Dimitrios E. Alexakis, Moataz Khairy Barakat
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Aquatic Science
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Biochemistry

The Upper Messinian reservoirs located in the Salma Field of the Nile Delta area contain variable facies. The key reservoir interval of the Abu Madi Formation was deposited in fluvial to deltaic environments. These fine-grained facies form significant reservoir heterogeneity within the reservoir intervals. The main challenges in this study are reservoir characterizing and predicting the change in reservoir water saturation (SW) with time, while reservoir production life based on the change in reservoir capillary pressure (Pc). This work applies petrophysical analysis to enable the definition and calculation of the hydrocarbon reserves within the key reservoir units. Mapping of SW away from the wellbores within geo-models represents a significant challenge. The rock types and flow unit analysis indicate that the reservoir is dominated by four hydraulic flow units. HFU#1 represents the highest flow zone indicator (FZI) value. Core analysis has been completed to better understand the relationship between SW and the reservoir capillary pressure above the fluid contact and free water level (FWL), which is used to perform saturation height function (SHF) analysis. The calculated SW values that are obtained from logs are affected by formation water resistivity (Rw) and log true resistivity (RT), which are influenced by the volume of clay content and mud salinity. This study introduces an integrated approach, including evaluation of core measurements, well log analysis covering cored and non-cored intervals, neural analysis techniques (K-mode algorithm), and permeability prediction in non-cored intervals. The empirical formula was predicted for direct calculation of dynamic SW profiles and predicted within the reservoir above the FWL based on the change in reservoir pressure.

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