Elena Forzese, Claudia Pitrone, Vincenzo Cianci, Daniela Sapienza, Antonio Ieni, Lorenzo Tornese, Alessio Cianci, Patrizia Gualniera, Alessio Asmundo, Cristina Mondello

An Insight into Kounis Syndrome: Bridging Clinical Knowledge with Forensic Perspectives

  • Paleontology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Kounis syndrome (KS) is an acute coronary syndrome triggered by allergic or hypersensitivity reactions. Incidence rates vary, with studies reporting 19.4 per 100.000 among all admissions and 3.4% among allergy patients. This review explores the expanding understanding of KS, encompassing various manifestations, and focusing on both clinical data and forensic findings useful in performing a diagnosis. The pathophysiology of this syndrome involves a complex interplay between allergic reactions and the cardiovascular system. Mast cell activation, histamine release, leukotrienes, cytokines, and platelet activation can contribute to coronary events. Three types of classification systems (allergic angina, allergic myocardial infarction, allergic stent thrombosis) aid in categorizing presentations. The diagnosis of KS relies on clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging. Postmortem assessment of KS is based on the integration of circumstantial data, autopsy, and histological findings. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses also contribute to postmortem diagnosis. In conclusion, a combined, multidisciplinary approach should be used to ease the diagnostic process, which is crucial for forensic practitioners in confirming KS occurrence.

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