Mpho Mashigo, Kennedy J Ngwira, Mpho Choene, Ida Risenga

Alpha-amylase Inhibition of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) Bolus Exposed to Low and High-Temperature Conditions

  • Pharmacology

Carpobrotus edulis is an edible medicinal plant from South Africa and is used for the treatment of different ailments and disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a persistent metabolic condition distinguished by high levels of glucose concentrations in the bloodstream. Due to climate change-related conditions, plants may be subjected to extreme temperature events such as cold fronts and heat waves. Hence the aim of the study was to expose Carpobrotus edulis leaves to temperature conditions and then assesses their antidiabetic activity against alpha-amylase in different solvents. The objective was to keep plants in growth chambers set at either 15/10oC and 45/35oC (day and night), respectively, and harvested at 48-hour intervals (48, 96, and 144). These were compared to plant samples in control conditions (25/15oC). Under control (25/15°C) conditions, the aqueous extract displayed effective inhibition of alpha-amylase (IC50 = 195mg/ml). In contrast to the control extracts, the hexane solvent consistently exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase under both low (15/10°C) and high (45/35°C) temperature conditions. This trend was observed across all three harvest durations. After 48 hours of high-temperature conditions, the IC50 value was 131mg/ml. While after 96 and 144 hours of low-temperature conditions, the IC50 values were 214mg/ml and 131mg/ml, respectively. The results suggest that Carpobrotus edulis, exposed to low and high temperature conditions, has potential antidiabetic properties against alpha-amylase. This is an interesting aspect of how environmental conditions can impact medicinal properties. The outcome may have significant implications for the use of the plant by indigenous people, who depend on it for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes. It will also have implications for the antidiabetic research of the plant as well as climate change research.

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