DOI: 10.3390/foods13030487 ISSN: 2304-8158

Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Bioaccessibility and Cytotoxicity In Vitro

Álvaro Lázaro, Massimo Frangiamone, Annalisa Maietti, Alessandra Cimbalo, Pilar Vila-Donat, Lara Manyes
  • Plant Science
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Health (social science)
  • Microbiology
  • Food Science

The present work focuses on the evaluation of AFB1′s bioaccessibility and cytotoxicity in vitro using bread (naturally contaminated) enriched or not enriched with fresh Voghiera garlic (2%). Two different experiments were carried out: experiment 1 (E1), with low-AFB1-concentration breads (1.6–1.7 mg/kg); and experiment 2 (E2), with high-AFB1-concentration breads (96.4–102.7 mg/kg). Eight breads were prepared, four for E1 (experiment 1) and another four for E2 (experiment 2), with each experiment having a control group (C), a garlic-enriched group (2%) (G), an AFB1 group (A), and an AFB1 + garlic group (A + G). Simulated digestion was performed on each type of bread, and gastric and intestinal digests were obtained. AFB1 content in flours, baked bread, and gastric and intestinal digests was measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Fluorescence Detection. The results demonstrate dose-dependent AFB1 bioaccessibility and that the presence of garlic contributed to its reduction in both doses (7–8%). Moreover, garlic’s presence in AFB1-contaminated bread increased cell viability (9–18%) in differentiated Caco-2 cells and mitigated the arrest of S and G2/M phases provoked by AFB1 on Jurkat T cells and reduced apoptosis/necrosis, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial ROS by 16%, 71%, and 24% respectively. The inclusion of garlic as a functional ingredient helped relieve the presence and effects of AFB1.

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