DOI: 10.3390/agronomy14020342 ISSN: 2073-4395

Allelopathic Potential and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from the Invasive Plant Acmella radicans

Kexin Yang, Yunhai Yang, Xiaohan Wu, Fengping Zheng, Gaofeng Xu, Shaosong Yang, Guimei Jin, David Roy Clements, Shicai Shen, Fudou Zhang
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Acmella radicans (Jacquin) R.K. Jansen is a new invasive species recorded in Yunnan Province, China, and little is known about its allelopathic potential and allelochemicals. In this study, the allelopathic effects of the essential oil (EO) of A. radicans on seed germination and seedling growth of four common plants, Brassica napus, Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Lolium multiflorum, were explored. The results showed that the seed germination index, germination rate, root length, stem length, and biomass of B. napus and B. rapa ssp. chinensis were significantly inhibited at all EO concentrations of A. radicans, but there was a ‘low-promotion and high-inhibition effect’ on the root length of D. sanguinalis and L. multiflorum at low concentrations of 0.5 μL·mL−1 and 0.5–1.0 μL·mL−1, respectively. With increasing concentrations of EO, the inhibition rates of seed germination and seedling growth of four common plants gradually increased, and D. sanguinalis and L. multiflorum were the most inhibited, followed by B. rapa ssp. chinensis, and the least inhibited was B. napus. Thirty-two components were identified using GC–MS, representing 99.07% of the EO in A. radicans. The major components were 2-tridecanone (30.46%), caryophyllene oxide (19.18%), 4,8,11,11-tetramethylbicyclo[7.2.0]undec-3-en-5-ol (7.84%), β-caryophyllene (7.67%), and widdrol (4.7%). Among the compounds we identified, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-tridecanone, γ-cadinene, δ-cadinene, (E)-α-cadinol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide, and widdrol have been previously reported as having possible allelopathic effects. Our study was the first to show that A. radicans could potentially release allelochemicals to influence neighboring plants during its invasion and expansion.

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