DOI: 10.3390/ph16091230 ISSN:

Age of Antibiotic Resistance in MDR/XDR Clinical Pathogen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Ashish Kothari, Radhika Kherdekar, Vishal Mago, Madhur Uniyal, Garima Mamgain, Roop Bhushan Kalia, Sandeep Kumar, Neeraj Jain, Atul Pandey, Balram Ji Omar
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Molecular Medicine

Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most challenging phenomena of everyday medical science. The universal spread of high-risk clones of multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) clinical P. aeruginosa has become a public health threat. The P. aeruginosa bacteria exhibits remarkable genome plasticity that utilizes highly acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms to counter most antibiotic challenges. In addition, the adaptive antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, including biofilm-mediated resistance and the formation of multidrug-tolerant persisted cells, are accountable for recalcitrance and relapse of infections. We highlighted the AMR mechanism considering the most common pathogen P. aeruginosa, its clinical impact, epidemiology, and save our souls (SOS)-mediated resistance. We further discussed the current therapeutic options against MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa infections, and described those treatment options in clinical practice. Finally, other therapeutic strategies, such as bacteriophage-based therapy and antimicrobial peptides, were described with clinical relevance.

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