DOI: 10.1002/mas.21871 ISSN: 0277-7037

Advances in proteomics methods for the analysis of exhaled breath condensate

Edwin J. Yoo, Julie S. Kim, Stephanie Stransky, Simon Spivack, Simone Sidoli
  • Spectroscopy
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Analytical Chemistry


The analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) demonstrates a promising avenue of minimally invasive biopsies for diagnostics. EBC is obtained by cooling exhaled air and collecting the condensation to be utilized for downstream analysis using various analytical methods. The aqueous phase of breath contains a large variety of miscible small compounds including polar electrolytes, amino acids, cytokines, chemokines, peptides, small proteins, metabolites, nucleic acids, and lipids/eicosanoids—however, these analytes are typically present at minuscule levels in EBC, posing a considerable technical challenge. Along with recent improvements in devices for breath collection, the sensitivity and resolution of liquid chromatography coupled to online mass spectrometry‐based proteomics has attained subfemtomole sensitivity, vastly enhancing the quality of EBC sample analysis. As a result, proteomics analysis of EBC has been expanding the field of breath biomarker research. We present an au courant overview of the achievements in proteomics of EBC, the advancement of EBC collection devices, and the current and future applications for EBC biomarker analysis.

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