Adsorption of Cadmium and Methylene Blue Using Highly Porous Carbon from Hemp SeedsBetty Refilwe Mphuthi, Patiennce Mapule Thabede, Johannes Sekomeng Modise, Thokozani Xaba, Ntaote David Shooto
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
- Computer Science Applications
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- General Engineering
- General Materials Science
Toxins in water, such as metal ions and dyes, have become a global challenge to humanity by causing several serious illnesses. Removal of these toxins from water is needed for human health and environmental concerns. This work investigated the use of hemp seeds as an environmentally friendly adsorbent for applications in water treatment. Pristine hemp seeds (PHSs) were carbonized at 500 and 700 °C to obtain carbon-based hemp seeds (CHS-500 and CHS-700 for the removal of cadmium and methylene blue. The morphological and functional groups of the carbonized adsorbents and pristine hemp seeds were determined by SEM and FTIR. Isotherm studies showed that the Langmuir model best described the adsorption process based on homogenous surfaces. The maximum adsorption capacities were obtained with CHS-700 with a 36.88 and 52.61 mg/g uptake of cadmium and methylene blue, respectively. The effect of contact time showed that the sorption process rate was rapid initially, followed by a slower increment due to the saturation of active sites. ΔS° values were positive, demonstrating the increased randomness and degree of freedom of cadmium and methylene blue in water. The adsorption trends for cadmium and methylene blue by CHS-500 and CHS-700 increased as the temperature rose; a decrease was observed for adsorption by PHSs. This result suggests that the adsorption was endothermic for CHS-500 and CHS-700 and exothermic for PHSs. The pseudo-second-order model better described the uptake of both pollutants by the adsorbents. This research illustrates the great potential of carbon-based hemp seeds in removing cadmium and methylene blue dye from water.