DOI: 10.3390/cancers15174227 ISSN:

Administration of Enfortumab Vedotin after Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitor and the Prognosis in Japanese Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: A Large Database Study on Enfortumab Vedotin in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

Takashi Kawahara, Akihito Hasizume, Koichi Uemura, Katsuya Yamaguchi, Hiroki Ito, Teppei Takeshima, Hisashi Hasumi, Jun-ichi Teranishi, Kimito Ousaka, Kazuhide Makiyama, Hiroji Uemura
  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Background: Enfortumab vedotin shows promise as a targeted therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma, particularly in patients who have previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and an immune-checkpoint inhibitor. The EV-301 phase III trial demonstrated significantly improved overall survival and response rates compared to standard chemotherapy. However, more data, especially from larger real-world studies, are needed to further assess its effectiveness in Japanese patients. Methods: A total of 6007 urothelial cancer patients inducted with pembrolizumab as a second-line treatment were analyzed. Among them, 563 patients received enfortumab vedotin after pembrolizumab, while 443 patients received docetaxel or paclitaxel after pembrolizumab, and all were included in the study for efficacy as a life prolonging agent. Results: The enfortumab vedotin group showed a longer overall survival than the paclitaxel/docetaxel group (p = 0.013, HR: 0.71). In multivariate analysis, enfortumab vedotin induction was the independent risk factor for overall survival (p = 0.013, HR: 0.70). There were no significant differences in cancer-specific survival. Conclusions: Enfortumab vedotin prolonged the overall survival for Japanese advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients compared to paclitaxel or docetaxel after pembrolizumab treatment.

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