ADME characterization and PBK model development of 3 highly protein-bound UV filters through topical applicationHequn Li, Fazila Bunglawala, Nicola J Hewitt, Ruth Pendlington, Richard Cubberley, Beate Nicol, Sandrine Spriggs, Maria Baltazar, Sophie Cable, Matthew Dent
Estimating human exposure in the safety assessment of chemicals is crucial. Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models which combine information on exposure, physiology, and chemical properties, describing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes of a chemical, can be used to calculate internal exposure metrics such as maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or tissues of a test chemical in next-generation risk assessment. This article demonstrates the development of PBK models for 3 UV filters, specifically octyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. The models were parameterized entirely based on data obtained from in vitro and/or in silico methods in a bottom-up modeling approach and then validated based on human dermal pharmacokinetic (PK) data. The 3 UV filters are “difficult to test” in in vitro test systems due to high lipophilicity, high binding affinity for proteins, and nonspecific binding, for example, toward plastic. This research work presents critical considerations in ADME data generation, interpretation, and parameterization to assure valid PBK model development to increase confidence in using PBK modeling to help make safety decisions in the absence of human PK data. The developed PBK models of the 3 chemicals successfully simulated the plasma concentration profiles of clinical PK data following dermal application, indicating the reliability of the ADME data generated and the parameters determined. The study also provides insights and lessons learned for characterizing ADME and developing PBK models for highly lipophilic and protein-bound chemicals in the future.