DOI: 10.3390/nu15173826 ISSN:

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xiao Bai, Xue Li, Siqi Ding, Dongqiu Dai
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Available results on the association between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and gastric cancer (GC) incidence are controversial. The present study aimed to determine the correlation between different subtypes of GC and MD adherence. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021284432). We searched Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception through 22 April 2023 to retrieve relevant studies. A random-effects model was used to pool odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analyses revealed that adherence to the MD was inversely associated with GC risk (ORcc, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.63; ORcoh, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.92). Higher MD adherence was significantly associated with a reduced GC risk in male (ORcc, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.93; ORcoh, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.01), but not in female (ORcc, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.01; ORcoh, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.31). Furthermore, adherence to the MD possibly decreased the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) (ORcc, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.83; ORcoh, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.02) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) (ORcc, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.79; ORcoh, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.94). Our results indicate that adherence to the MD reduces the risk of GC and its subtypes.

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