DOI: 10.1002/cpz1.933 ISSN: 2691-1299

Activation of Dendritic Cells Isolated from the Blood of Patients with Prostate Cancer by Ex Vivo Fluid Shear Stress Stimulation

Jenna A. Dombroski, Monika Antunovic, Kerry R. Schaffer, Paula J. Hurley, Michael R. King
  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Health Informatics
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Neuroscience


Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men in the United States and a leading cause of cancer‐related death in men. Treatment options for patients with advanced prostate cancer include hormone therapies, chemotherapies, radioligand therapies, and immunotherapies. Provenge (sipuleucel‐T) is an autologous cancer‐vaccine‐based immunotherapy approved for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Administration of sipuleucel‐T involves leukapheresis of patient blood to isolate antigen‐presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs), and subsequent incubation of isolated APCs with both an antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and granulocyte macrophage‐colony stimulating factor (GM‐CSF) before their infusion back into the patient. Although sipuleucel‐T has been shown to improve overall survival, other meaningful outcomes, such as prostate‐specific antigen (PSA) levels and radiographic response, are inconsistent. This lack of robust response may be due to limited ex vivo activation of DCs using current protocols. Earlier studies have shown that many cell types can be activated ex vivo by external forces such as fluid shear stress (FSS). We hypothesize that novel fluid shear stress technologies and methods can be used to improve ex vivo efficacy of prostate cancer DC activation in prostate cancer. Herein, we report a new protocol for activating DCs from patients with prostate cancer using ex vivo fluid shear stress. Ultimately, the goal of these studies is to improve DC activation to expand the efficacy of therapies such as sipuleucel‐T. © 2023 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Basic Protocol 1: Sample collection and DC isolation

Basic Protocol 2: Determination and application of fluid shear stress

Basic Protocol 3: Flow cytometry analysis of DCs after FSS stimulation

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