DOI: 10.1097/jbr.0000000000000151 ISSN: 2096-5672

Acquired pure red cell aplasia: unraveling the immune pathogenesis

Mengyuan Liu, Tian Zhang, Xifeng Dong, Huaquan Wang
  • Computer Science Applications
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Biomedical Engineering

Acquired pure red cell aplasia (aPRCA) is a rare hematological disorder characterized by normochromic, normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and the absence of erythroblasts. The pathogenesis of aPRCA has remained elusive. This review delves into the intricate web of immune mechanisms underlying the development of this enigmatic condition. By exploring immune responses, cytotoxic effects, and antibody-mediated processes, we dissect the immune-driven assault on erythroid progenitors. The classification of aPRCA, including its primary and secondary forms, is elucidated, with a particular emphasis on etiological factors such as viruses, drugs, thymoma, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of cytogenetic changes in erythroid progenitors and immune cells in the pathophysiology of aPRCA. This comprehensive overview aims to shed light on the complex interplay between immune dysregulation and erythroid failure in aPRCA, offering insights that will be crucial for better understanding and treating this disease.

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