Acquired Male Hypogonadism in the Post-Genomic Era—A Narrative ReviewGiuseppe Grande, Andrea Graziani, Luca De Toni, Andrea Garolla, Domenico Milardi, Alberto Ferlin
- Space and Planetary Science
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Although precision medicine took its first steps from genomic medicine, it has gone far beyond genomics, considering the full complexity of cellular physiology. Therefore, the present time can be considered as the “post-genomic era”. In detail, proteomics captures the overall protein profile of an analyzed sample, whilst metabolomics has the purpose of studying the molecular aspects of a known medical condition through the measurement of metabolites with low molecular weight in biological specimens. In this review, the role of post-genomic platforms, namely proteomics and metabolomics, is evaluated with a specific interest in their application for the identification of novel biomarkers in male hypogonadism and in the identification of new perspectives of knowledge on the pathophysiological function of testosterone. Post-genomic platforms, including MS-based proteomics and metabolomics based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-HRMS, have been applied to find solutions to clinical questions related to the diagnosis and treatment of male hypogonadism. In detail, seminal proteomics helped us in identifying novel non-invasive markers of androgen activity to be translated into clinical practice, sperm proteomics revealed the role of testosterone in spermatogenesis, while serum metabolomics helped identify the different metabolic pathways associated with testosterone deficiency and replacement treatment, both in patients with insulin sensitivity and patients with insulin resistance.