DOI: 10.1111/aos.15746 ISSN:

A systematic review and meta‐analysis of the efficacy of different optical interventions on the control of myopia in children

Samrat Sarkar, Sieu Khuu, Pauline Kang
  • Ophthalmology
  • General Medicine


To compare the treatment efficacy of childhood myopia control optical interventions [spectacles, soft contact lenses (SCLs) and orthokeratology (OK) lenses], explore the consistency of treatment efficacies during the treatment period and evaluate the impact of baseline spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL) and age on the treatment effect. A literature search of EMBASE, PubMed and Google Scholar databases identified 220 articles published between January 2000 and April 2022, which reported the treatment efficacy by differences in the SER and AL change between intervention and control groups. Thirty‐five articles were included in the analysis. Treatment effect sizes (ESs) were calculated, where more positive and negative directions indicated greater treatment efficacy for SER and AL respectively. For SER, the ESs with peripheral add design spectacles (0.66) and SCLs (0.53) were large but not significantly different between treatment types (p = 0.69). For AL, ESs with peripheral add design spectacles (−0.37), SCLs (−0.55) and OK lenses (−0.93) were large, but OK lenses had a significantly greater effect than peripheral add design spectacles (p ≤ 0.001). ESs were large during the first 12 months of treatment for all interventions [peripheral add design SCLs and OK (F ≥ 5.39, p ≤ 0.01), peripheral add design spectacles (F = 0.47, p = 0.63)] but reduced towards the end of 24–36 months of treatment. Baseline SER had an impact on the treatment effect with peripheral add design spectacles only. Optical interventions are efficacious in controlling childhood myopia progression. However, treatment effects were largest only during the first 12 months of treatment and reduced over time.

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