DOI: 10.3390/s24030799 ISSN: 1424-8220

A Study of Outliers in GNSS Clock Products

Kamil Maciuk, Inese Varna, Karolina Krzykowska-Piotrowska
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry

Time is an extremely important element in the field of GNSS positioning. In precise positioning with a single-centimetre accuracy, satellite clock corrections are used. In this article, the longest available data set of satellite clock corrections of four GNSS systems from 2014 to 2021 was analysed. This study covers the determination of the quality (outliers number and magnitude), availability, stability, and determination of the specificity and nature of the clock correction for each satellite system. One problem with the two newest satellite systems (Galileo and BeiDou) is the lack of availability of satellite signals in the early years of the analysis. These data were available only in the later years of the period covered by the analysis, as most of the satellites have only been in orbit since 2018–2019. Interestingly, the percentage of outlying observations was highest in Galileo and lowest in BeiDou. Phase and frequency plots showed a significant number of outlying observations. On the other hand, after eliminating outlying observations, each system showed a characteristic graph waveform. The most consistent and stable satellite clock corrections are provided by the GPS and GLONASS systems. The main problems discussed in this paper are the determination of the number and magnitude of outliers in clock products of four GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou) and the study on the long-term stability of GNSS clocks analysis, which covers the years 2014–2021.

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