DOI: 10.3390/s24041057 ISSN: 1424-8220

A Secure Dual-Layer Fault Protection Strategy for Distribution Network with DERs: Enhancing Security in the Face of Communication Challenges

Wael Al Hanaineh, Jose Matas, Josep M. Guerrero, Mostafa Bakkar
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry

Earlier protection methods mainly focused on using communication channels to transmit trip signals between the protective devices (PDs), with no solutions provided in the case of communication failure. Therefore, this paper introduces a dual-layer protection system to ensure secure protection against fault events in the Distribution Systems (DSs), particularly in light of communication failures. The initial layer uses the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), the estimates of the amplitude voltages, and the zero-sequence grid voltage components, functioning as a fault sensor, to formulate an adaptive algorithm based on a Finite State Machine (FSM) for the detection and isolation of faults within the grid. This layer primarily relies on communication protocols for effective coordination. A Second-Order Generalized Integrator (SOGI) expedites the derivation of the estimated variables, ensuring fast detection with minimal computational overhead. The second layer uses the behavior of the positive- and negative-sequence components of the grid voltages during fault events to locate and isolate these faults. In the event that the first layer exposes a communication failure, the second layer will automatically be activated to ensure secure protection as it operates, using the local information of the Protective devices (PDs), without the need for communication channels to transmit trip signals between the PDs. The proposed protection system has been assessed using simulations with MATLAB/Simulink and providing experimental results considering an IEEE 9-bus standard radial system. The obtained results confirm the capability of the system for identifying and isolating different types of faults, varying conditions, and modifications to the grid configuration. The results show good behavior of the initial THD-based layer, with fast time responses ranging from 6 to 8.5 ms in all the examined scenarios. In contrast, the sequence-based layer exhibits a protection time response of approximately 150 ms, making it a viable backup option in the event of a communication failure.

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