Erdal Yabalak, Mohammad Tahir Aminzai, Ahmet Murat Gizir, Yu Yang

A Review: Subcritical Water Extraction of Organic Pollutants from Environmental Matrices

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Most organic pollutants are serious environmental concerns globally due to their resistance to biological, chemical, and photolytic degradation. The vast array of uses of organic compounds in daily life causes a massive annual release of these substances into the air, water, and soil. Typical examples of these substances include pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since they are persistent and hazardous in the environment, as well as bio-accumulative, sensitive and efficient extraction and detection techniques are required to estimate the level of pollution and assess the ecological consequences. A wide variety of extraction methods, including pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and subcritical water extraction, have been recently used for the extraction of organic pollutants from the environment. However, subcritical water has proven to be the most effective approach for the extraction of a wide range of organic pollutants from the environment. In this review article, we provide a brief overview of the subcritical water extraction technique and its application to the extraction of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and others form environmental matrices. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the influence of key extraction parameters, such as extraction time, pressure, and temperature, on extraction efficiency and recovery.

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