DOI: 10.1177/00368504231221672 ISSN: 0036-8504

A review on toxicity of nanomaterials in agriculture: Current scenario and future prospects

Saima Muzammil, Asma Ashraf, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Bilal Aslam, Ijaz Rasul, Rasti Abbas, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Faisal, Sumreen Hayat
  • Multidisciplinary

Phytonanotechnology plays a crucial part in the production of good quality and high-yield food. It can also alter the plant's production systems, hence permitting the efficient, controlled and stable release of agrochemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides. An advanced understanding of nanomaterials interaction with plant responses like localization and uptake, etc. could transfigure the production of crops with high disease resistance and efficient nutrients utilization. In agriculture, the use of nanomaterials has gained acceptance due to their wide-range applications. However, their toxicity and bioavailability are the major hurdles for their massive employment. Undoubtedly, nanoparticles positively influence seeds germination, growth and development, stress management and post-harvest handling of vegetables and fruits. These nanoparticles may also cause toxicity in plants through oxidative stress by generation of excessive reactive oxygen species thus affecting the cellular biomolecules and targeting different channels. Nanoparticles have shown to exert various effects on plants that are mainly affected by various attributes such as physicochemical features of nanomaterials, coating materials for nanoparticles, type of plant, growth stages and growth medium for plants. This article discusses the interaction, accretion and toxicity of nanomaterials in plants. The factors inducing nanotoxicity and the mechanisms followed by nanomaterials causing toxicity are also instructed. At the end, detoxification mechanism of plant is also presented.

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