A Review on Neuroinflammatory Pathway Mediating Through Ang-II/AT1 Receptors and a Novel Approach for the Treatment of Cerebral Ischemia in Combination with ARB’s and CeftriaxoneGaddam Narasimha Rao, Srikanth Jupudi, Antony Justin
- General Neuroscience
Ischemic stroke is one of the prevalent neurodegenerative disorders; it is generally characterized by sudden abruption of blood flow due to thromboembolism and vascular abnormalities, eventually impairing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain for its metabolic needs. Oxygen-glucose deprived conditions provoke the release of excessive glutamate, which causes excitotoxicity.
Recent studies suggest that circulatory angiotensin-II (Ang-II) has an imperative role in initiating detrimental events through binding central angiotensin 1 (AT1) receptors. Insufficient energy metabolites and essential ions often lead to oxidative stress during ischemic reperfusion, which leads to the release of proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and cytokines like interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin- 1beta (IL-1β). The transmembrane glutamate transporters, excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT-2), which express in astroglial cells, have a crucial role in the clearance of glutamate from its releasing site and convert glutamate into glutamine in normal circumstances of brain physiology.
During cerebral ischemia, an impairment or dysfunction of EAAT-2 attributes the risk of delayed neuronal cell death. Earlier studies evidencing that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) attenuate neuroinflammation by inhibiting the Ang-II/AT1 receptor-mediated inflammatory pathway and that ceftriaxone ameliorates the excitotoxicity-induced neuronal deterioration by enhancing the transcription and expression of EAAT-2 via the nuclear transcriptional factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling pathway. The present review will briefly discuss the mechanisms involved in Ang-II/AT1-mediated neuroinflammation, ceftriaxone-induced EAAT-2 expression, and the repurposing hypothesis of the novel combination of ARBs and ceftriaxone for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.