DOI: 10.1155/2023/6340851 ISSN: 2090-1844

A Retrospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Sequential versus Concurrent Intrapleural Instillation of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase for Pleural Infection

Ken Junyang Goh, Wui Mei Chew, Jasmine Chiat Ling Ong, Carrie Kah-Lai Leong, Imran Bin Mohamed Noor, Devanand Anantham, Li Yan Sandra Hui, Mindy Chu Ming Choong, Charlene Jin Yee Liew, Marnie Tamayo Gutierrez, Jane Jing Yi Wong, Ivana Gilcrist Chiew Sian Phua, Wen Ting Lim, Qiao Li Tan
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • General Medicine

Background and Objective. Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator/deoxyribonuclease (tPA/DNase) is increasingly being used for pleural infections. Compared to sequential instillation of tPA/DNase, concurrent instillation considerably reduces the complexity of the administration process and reduces workload and the number of times the chest drain is accessed. However, it remains unclear if concurrent intrapleural therapy is as efficacious or safe as sequential intrapleural therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with pleural infection requiring intrapleural therapy at two tertiary referral centres. Results. We included 84 (62.2%) and 51 (37.8%) patients who received sequential and concurrent intrapleural therapy, respectively. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics, including age, RAPID score, and percentage of pleural opacity on radiographs before intrapleural therapy, were similar in both groups. Treatment failure rates (defined by either in-hospital mortality, surgical intervention, or 30-day readmission for pleural infection) were 9.5% and 5.9% with sequential and concurrent intrapleural therapy, respectively ( p = 0.534 ). This translates to a treatment success rate of 90.5% and 94.1% for sequential and concurrent intrapleural therapy, respectively. There was no significant difference in the decrease in percentage of pleural effusion size on chest radiographs (15.1% [IQR 6-35.7] versus 26.6% [IQR 9.9-38.7], p = 0.143 ) between sequential and concurrent therapy, respectively. There were also no significant differences in the rate of pleural bleeding (4.8% versus 9.8%, p = 0.298 ) and chest pain (13.1% versus 9.8%, p = 0.566 ) between sequential and concurrent therapy, respectively. Conclusion. Our study adds to the growing literature on the safety and efficacy of concurrent intrapleural therapy in pleural infection.

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