DOI: 10.2500/aap.2024.45.230076 ISSN: 1088-5412

A case-control study for comorbidity and laboratory factors associated with food-induced anaphylaxis

Eli Magen, Eugene Merzon, Ilan Green, Avivit Golan-Cohen, Israel Magen, Shlomo Vinker, Ariel Israel
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • General Medicine
  • Immunology and Allergy

Background: Food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA) is a serious and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction triggered by food allergens. Objective: This case-control study aimed to investigate comorbidities and laboratory factors associated with FIA in the pediatric population of Israel. Methods: Retrospective data from the electronic health records of Leumit Health Care Services were used to identify 711 pediatric patients with FIA and 2560 subjects with food allergy and without anaphylaxis matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. Comorbidities were identified based on medical billing diagnosis codes, and laboratory characteristics were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of patients with FIA was 4.1 ± 4.1 years, and 37.3% were girls. Laboratory analysis revealed increased eosinophil counts (p < 0.001), elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) (p < 0.001), and IgA levels (p = 0.001) in the FIA group compared with the controls. With regard to comorbidities, the FIA group had higher prevalence rates of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis (odds ratio [OR] 1.72; p < 0.001), allergic conjunctivitis (OR 1.84; p = 0.001), asthma (OR 1.36; p < 0.001), angioedema (OR 6.37; p < 0.001), atopic dermatitis (OR 1.77; p < 0.001), and contact dermatitis (OR 1.42; p = 0.001). There was a trend toward significance for chronic spontaneous urticaria (p = 0.051). There was a significant negative association between helminthiases, particularly enterobiasis, and FIA (OR 0.76 [95% confidence interval, 0.59‐0.98]; p = 0.029). Conclusion: This study provides valuable epidemiologic evidence on the associations among FIA, comorbidities, and laboratory factors in the pediatric population.

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