Hodan Ibrahim, Kevin Retailleau, Fraser Hornby, Jacquie Maignel, Matthew Beard, Donna Marie Daly

A Novel Catalytically Inactive Construct of Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) Directly Inhibits Visceral Sensory Signalling

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is a potent neurotoxin that silences cholinergic neurotransmission through the cleavage of the synaptic protein SNAP-25. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to its paralytic effects, BoNT/A can inhibit sensory nerve activity. The aim of this study was to identify how BoNT/A inhibits afferent signalling from the bladder. To investigate the role of SNAP-25 cleavage in the previously reported BoNT/A-dependent inhibition of sensory signalling, we developed a recombinant form of BoNT/A with an inactive light chain, rBoNT/A (0), unable to paralyse muscle. We also developed recombinant light chain (LC)-domain-only proteins to better understand the entry mechanisms, as the heavy chain (HC) of the protein is responsible for the internalisation of the light chain. We found that, despite a lack of catalytic activity, rBoNT/A (0) potently inhibited the afferent responses to bladder distension to a greater degree than catalytically active rBoNT/A. This was also clear from the testing of the LC-only proteins, as the inactive rLC/A (0) protein inhibited afferent responses significantly more than the active rLC/A protein. Immunohistochemistry for cleaved SNAP-25 was negative, and purinergic and nitrergic antagonists partially and totally reversed the sensory inhibition, respectively. These data suggest that the BoNT/A inhibition of sensory nerve activity in this assay is not due to the classical well-characterised ‘double-receptor’ mechanism of BoNT/A, is independent of SNAP25 cleavage and involves nitrergic and purinergic signalling mechanisms.

Need a simple solution for managing your BibTeX entries? Explore CiteDrive!

  • Web-based, modern reference management
  • Collaborate and share with fellow researchers
  • Integration with Overleaf
  • Comprehensive BibTeX/BibLaTeX support
  • Save articles and websites directly from your browser
  • Search for new articles from a database of tens of millions of references
Try out CiteDrive

More from our Archive