DOI: 10.1177/10598405231214981 ISSN: 1059-8405

A Multilevel Analysis of School-Level Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage in Virginia

Kimberly McNally, Ali Weinstein, Lisa Lindley, Robin Wallin, Amira Roess
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)

School nurses improve public health through vaccine promotion and mandate compliance. Despite recommendations and support for comprehensive adolescent HPV vaccination from organizations like the National Association of School Nurses as of 2023 only Virginia, Washington DC, Rhode Island, and Hawaii mandate HPV vaccine in schools. Virginia's mandate allows caregivers to opt out of vaccination. It is important to consider how school-level vaccine compliance is associated with school and community factors. A multilevel analysis explored the association between school and county-level factors and HPV vaccination rates. This study shows schools that report higher rates of economically disadvantaged students had higher HPV vaccine coverage. HPV vaccine rates increased from 2019 to 2021 after the implementation of a gender-inclusive mandate. Virginia HPV rates still lag behind states with no mandate. The results suggest that school nursing practice related to HPV vaccine compliance may be impacted by community factors like economic status.

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