DOI: 10.1002/iid3.1188 ISSN: 2050-4527

A multicenter study of severity and prognosis of symptomatic COVID‐19 in end‐stage renal disease and non‐dialysis patients in East of Iran

Tara Mohsenzadeh, Masood Ziaee, Hamid Salehiniya, Hossein Mohsenzadeh, Amin Mirsani, Vajehallah Raeesi
  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy



This study aimed to assess the severity and related factors of symptomatic COVID‐19 in end‐stage renal disease (ESRD) patients from several centers in Eastern Iran.


In this retrospective cohort study, after obtaining ethical approval, 410 patients diagnosed with COVID‐19 were included for analysis. Patients were categorized into two groups based on their dialysis status: the dialysis group (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis) and the non‐dialysis group (those without chronic dialysis). Demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests at admission, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality data were extracted from their medical records and entered into researcher‐developed checklists.


In this multicenter study, 104 dialysis patients with a mean age of 64.81 ± 16.04 were compared to 316 non‐dialysis patients with a mean age of 60.92 ± 17.89. Patients were similar in terms of age and gender, but a higher percentage of the dialysis group was aged over 65 years (p = .008). Altered consciousness, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, anorexia, and cough were statistically significantly more common in the dialysis group when evaluating clinical symptoms (p < .05). The dialysis group had significantly higher levels of white blood cell (WBC), potassium, calcium, urea, creatinine, blood pH, INR, ALT, ESR, and CRP, and lower levels of red blood cell, Hb, platelets, sodium, and LDH compared to the non‐dialysis group. Profoundly altered consciousness was more common among deceased patients (p < .001), and this group had higher WBC counts, urea levels, AST, ALT (p < .05), and lower blood pH (p = .001).


Based on the results of this study, it is plausible to suggest a hypothesis of greater severity and worse prognosis of COVID‐19 in ESRD patients. Underlying comorbidities, such as liver disorders or more severe clinical symptoms like altered consciousness, may also be indicative of a worse prognosis in dialysis patients with COVID‐19.

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