DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202316295 ISSN: 1616-301X

A Molecule Crowding Strategy to Stabilize Aqueous Sodium‐Ion Batteries

Jibo Ding, Qin Li, Jinyu Yang, Runting Wang, Jiafeng Ruan, Fang Fang, Dalin Sun, Fei Wang
  • Electrochemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Biomaterials
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


Aqueous sodium‐ion batteries (ASIBs) have recently emerged as a compelling choice for large‐scale energy storage when considering their safe operational characteristics and cost‐effectiveness. Nonetheless, the inadequate electrochemical stability window (ESW) of water (1.23 V) and severe dissolution of electrodes in aqueous electrolytes have proven bottlenecks to enabling high energy density and long lifespan of ASIBs. Here, a molecular crowding electrolyte is introduced, featuring nonflammable polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PED) as a crowding agent and a hydrogen bond receptor to further diminish the water activity. The 4.5 m (mol kg−1) NaClO4‐4 wt% H2O‐96 wt% PED electrolyte displayed an impressive ESW of 3.4 V, all while maintaining a moderate salt concentration of 4.5 m. Meanwhile, this electrolyte demonstrated substantial mitigation of vanadium dissolution in Na3V2(PO4)3. Consequently, in a comprehensive evaluation, the aqueous NaTi2(PO4)3||Na3V2(PO4)3 full cell exhibited an energy density of 47 Wh kg−1 at 1 C with a 74% retention after 100 cycles, and displayed negligible capacity decay (≈0.014% per cycle) at 5 C in 1000 cycles with high average coulombic efficiency of 99.8%. This work offers a universal strategy for the design of aqueous electrolytes with wide ESW and the ability to effectively suppress vanadium dissolution.

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