A Metalloproteinase Cocktail from the Venom of Protobothrops flavoviridis Cleaves Amyloid Beta Peptides at the α-Cleavage SiteEugene Futai, Hajime Kawasaki, Shinichi Sato, Khadija Daoudi, Masafumi Hidaka, Taisuke Tomita, Tomohisa Ogawa
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family proteins are a major class of membrane-anchored multidomain proteinases that are responsible for the shedding of cell surface protein ectodomains, including amyloid precursor protein (APP). Human ADAM 9, 10, and 17 proteolyze APPs and produce non-amyloid-genic p3 peptides, instead of neurotoxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβs; Aβ40 and Aβ42), which form fibrils and accumulate in the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The ADAM family is closely related to snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), which are derived from ancestral ADAMs but act as soluble proteinases. To test the therapeutic potential of SVMPs, we purified SVMPs from Protobothrops flavoviridis venom using metal ion affinity and pooled into a cocktail. Thus, 9 out of 11 SVMPs in the P. flavoviridis genome were identified in the cocktail. SVMPs inhibited Aβ secretion when added to human cell culture medium without affecting APP proteolysis. SVMPs degraded synthetic Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides at the same cleavage site (α-site of APP) as ADAM9, 10, and 17. SVMPs did not degrade Aβ fibrils but interfered with their formation, assessed using thioflavin-T. Thus, SVMPs have therapeutic potential for AD as an Aβ-degrading protease, and the finding adds to the discovery of bioactive peptides from venoms as novel therapeutics.