Patikiri Arachchige Don Shehan Nilmantha Wijesekara, Subodha Gunawardena

A Machine Learning-Aided Network Contention-Aware Link Lifetime- and Delay-Based Hybrid Routing Framework for Software-Defined Vehicular Networks

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications

The functionality of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) is improved by the Software-Defined Vehicular Network (SDVN) paradigm. Routing is challenging in vehicular networks due to the dynamic network topology resulting from the high mobility of nodes. Existing approaches for routing in SDVN do not exploit both link lifetimes and link delays in finding routes, nor do they exploit the heterogeneity that exists in links in the vehicular network. Furthermore, most of the existing approaches compute parameters at the controller entirely using heuristic approaches, which are computationally inefficient and can increase the latency of SDVN as the network size grows. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid algorithm for routing in SDVNs with two modes: the highest stable least delay mode and the highest stable shortest path mode, in which the mode is selected by estimating the network contention. We distinctly identify two communication channels in the vehicular network as wired and wireless, where network link entropy is formulated accordingly and is used in combination with pending transmissions to estimate collision probability and average network contention. We use the prospect of machine learning to predict the wireless link lifetimes and one-hop channel delays, which yield very low Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs), depicting their very high accuracy, and the wireless link lifetime prediction using deep learning yields a much lower average computational time compared to an optimization-based approach. The proposed novel algorithm selects only stable links by comparing them with a link lifetime threshold whose optimum value is decided experimentally. We propose this routing framework to be compatible with the OpenFlow protocol, where we modify the flow table architecture to incorporate a route valid time and send a packet_in message to the controller when the route’s lifetime expires, requesting new flow rules. We further propose a flow table update algorithm to map computed routes to flow table entries, where we propose to incorporate an adaptive approach for route finding and flow rule updating upon reception of a packet_in message in order to minimize the computational burden at the controller and minimize communication overhead associated with control plane communication. This research contributes a novel hybrid routing framework for the existing SDVN paradigm, scrutinizing machine learning to predict the lifetime and delay of heterogeneity links, which can be readily integrated with the OpenFlow protocol for better routing applications, improving the performance of the SDVN. We performed realistic vehicular network simulations using the network simulator 3 by obtaining vehicular mobility traces using the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) tool, where we collected data sets for training the machine learning models using the simulated environment in order to test models in terms of RMSE and computational complexity. The proposed routing framework was comparatively assessed against existing routing techniques by evaluating the communication cost, latency, channel utilization, and packet delivery ratio. According to the results, the proposed routing framework results in the lowest communication cost, the highest packet delivery ratio, the least latency, and moderate channel utilization, on average, compared to routing in VANET using Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and routing in SDVN using Dijkstra; thus, the proposed routing framework improves routing in SDVN. Furthermore, results show that the proposed routing framework is enhanced with increasing routing frequency and network size, as well as at low vehicular speeds.

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